Mangroves are evergreen trees and shrubs that flourish in the intertidal
forest communities of sheltered tropical or subtropical coastlines around
the month of rivers. This term may also refer to such plant communities,
but some authors would use the word "mangal" for the communities.
These mangrove plants (or sometimes mangroves) face regular tidal changes
and influx of both freshwater and seawater, and they possess specialized
features for adaptations to this environment, creating a remarkable ecosystem
in such habitat.
Environmental stresses on plants:
a) waterlogged anaerobic soil
b) submersion by seawater due to tidal changes
c) unstable muddy substratum due to alluvium from rivers and seas
d) high salt concentrations in seawater
e) desiccation due to exposure to strong sunlight
f) physiological unavailability of seawater