Gymnosperms : vascular plants

Gymnosperms possess vascular tissues consisting of mainly xylem and phloem, which facilitate water conduction and food translocation, respectively, in the plant body. Tracheids are the main water-conducting xylem tissues in most gymnosperms, and vessels, another type of xylem tissues common in the angiosperms, are found only in a small group of gymnosperms placed in the division Gnetophyta. Tracheids and vessels have lignified cell walls, and they, together with other supporting tissues such as fibers, form the building blocks that give strength for an erect stem in gymnosperms, some even to nearly 100 m tall.

Besides gymnosperms, vascular tissues are also found in ferns, fern allies, and flowering plants (angiosperms). All these plants with vascular tissues are collectively called vascular plants (tracheophytes).

Gymnosperms >> Ovules